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Renewable source of energy in ORC technology

Infrastruktura - Środowisko - Energia
Dodatek promocyjno-reklamowy do "RZECZPOSPOLITEJ".
20 marca 2007 r.

po polsku

Modern heat and current source in Ostrowski Zakład Ciepłowniczy SA

Renewable source of energy in ORC technology

Works on the preparation of the assumptions for the project of co-generation source biomass-fired construction lasted since 2004. The conviction that it is supposed to be the co-generation system existed from the very beginning, as the predominance of high efficiency of energy included in the fuel transformation, the decrease of hothouse gases emission as well as production costs was checked in Ostrowski Zakład Ciepłowniczy SA right after the implementation of the gas turbo-system with the waste heat boiler in 2000.  

Due to the innovatory project character as well as the lack of national patterns, activities were carried out in terms of aims determination, the way of implementing innovations, the choice of production factors combination, the choice of the project variation, the choice of the capital for the innovation financing. Considerations which were carried out mostly concerned: variations of technology choice, including the generative units, location variants with the possibility of using the existing infrastructure, the influence of the project on the work of the actual district heating system with regard to the summer season. Different technological system concepts were analyzed, including:

  • With steam boiler fired with biomass and extraction turbine,
  • With the system of biomass gasification, gas turbine and/or gas engines,
  • With a boiler for thermal oil fired with biomass and ORC turbo generator.

The two subsequent tenders for the design of the steam boiler fired with biomass and extraction turbine finished unsuccessfully due to the fact of not meeting the technical requirements and over 40 % exceeding of the planned project budget.

In March 2005, after the analysis of the hitherto prevailing tenders, in co-operation with the experts from Ekofundusz, the assumptions were changed in terms of project costs minimalization. The main changes include the application of a modern technology ORC (Organic Rankin Cycle), the usage of the surface in the existing building occurred after the liquidation of the coal-fired boiler, the usage of the existing technological infrastructure of EC Ostrów heat and power plant, the acceptance by OZC SA of tasks connected with the complex project carrying out. The decision was elaborated by means of economical effective models. The steering in the innovatory process was directed to the increase of effectiveness. The project effectiveness calculation was the multiple actions, adjusted for achieving the effectiveness requirements.  

Why ORC technology?

The design expects the installation of one boiler for thermal oil of Austrian company production Polytechnik, with the thermal power of 9 MWt and oil temperature of 310/250°C, fired with wood silvers. The boiler in the form of a vertical cylinder is placed by the combustion chamber with step grate cooled with water, with rusztowinami made of chromium steel. The effectiveness of the transformation is 79%, and fuel usage - 124 kg/GJ.

Emission parameters: NOx < 400 mg/m3, SO2 < 400 mg/ m3, CO < 170 mg/m3, dust < 100 mg/m3.

The heating factor from the boiler, which is thermal oil, shall be supplied by turbo generator ORC with the thermal power of 7, 3 MW and electrical power of 1, 5 MW, of Italian production Turboden srl company. The drawing presents the scheme of boiler for thermal oil co-operation with turbo generator ORC and thermal network.

Exploitation properties of ORC turbo generator: high availability (99, 1%), load flexibility (from 10%), almost constant efficiency in load function (to 40%), serviceless work.

Characteristic features: low pressure and temperature values, high performance, low thermal tensions, lack of blade erosion, long life performance, low turbine rotation speed  (gear is not present), lack of water preparation station.

Turbo generator ORC will transmit thermal energy to the technological system "EC Ostrów" as well as electric energy to the local energetic system. Electrical energy will be the green energy, so it will be possible to get the additional income due to the sales of energy production certificates from the renewable resources. Additionally, it will be possible to sale the authorizations for emission, achieved as a result of coal-fired boiler liquidation. Electric energy comprise for 18% of the whole thermal oil energy.

Module ORC with turbo generator will be located in the existing boiler hall, in the place after the liquidated coal-fired boiler WR 10, whereas the boiler for thermal oil will be placed in the new building, adjusting to the existing boiler hall. Besides the building for the boiler for thermal oil, a shed will be built, which will play the function of the biomass storage.

The benefits of the solution:

1. It allows for the usage, in high level, of the existing on the heat and power plant "EC Ostrów" area infrastructure:

a) Building: using the cubic capacity after the liquidated coal-fired boiler,

b) Technological: connected with the thermal energy output system,

c) Energetic: usage of the existing SN switching station.

2. It characterizes with beneficial exploitation properties:

a) Yearly heat production - 190 000 GJ,

b) Yearly electric energy production - 10 800 MWh,

c) Yearly usage of bio-fuel - 30 800 t/year (heating value of 10, 2 MJ/kg),

d) The type of fuel: slivers and bark from the process of plywood production, slivers from the forest, slivers of energetic willow, sawdust.

3. It is characterized with the lowest exploitation costs and the lowest investment expenditure: it is possible to sign the full service contract; the project budget has closed on the level of 5, 5 million Euros.

4. It shows the highest economic effectiveness. The project as innovatory one has gained financial support with the subsidy from EkoFundusz Foundation, which granted money on the level of 40% of project budget. The project was supported also by NFOŚiGW 20% with preferential credit. The other own funds OZC SA has been cumulating during the last few years. The calculated project economical effectiveness shows that the discounted return period is 11 years.

5. The project profitability depends mostly on the average, yearly amount of working hours as well as the fuel prices. The project attractiveness increases in case, when there is the demand for heat apart from the heating period or in case of possibility of gaining cheap bio-fuel, e.g. as the by-product occurring in the production process. In case when the mentioned conditions do not take place, the project profitability has to and can be assured by getting the financing with the grant participation. Nowadays, there are a few European Union Fund support programs started for investment projects of local renewable sources. 

Heat engineering requires new ways of development

The decrease of harmful emission shall not be only an empty word. Locally, there is no research carried out regarding the influence of the harmful emission to the health of the society. There is also no essential economical reason for using the renewable fuels by the given inhabitants and heating companies. Only in tourist resorts one can notice the interest in caring about natural environment. While the project preparations, legislation changes have started, which promote the protection of the natural environment. A few times changed energetic law gives lucid support impulses for renewable resources. The implementation of the act on emissions trade, introduction of co-generation directive, is another step which shall slowly change the structure of Polish electro-power industry. National heating system in the presence of regulatory activities only for a short period of time can receive a small return from the invested capital. Being mostly in local government structures it undergoes the influence dependent from the local policy, in electoral cycles, without care to its infrastructure development.   The investments in heating system are long lasting, capital-consuming and one has to prepare to the well, using the modern solutions and applying the methods of project effectiveness evaluation.

And practically, there is no alternative for heating companies, which have at their disposal older and older property, than choosing the scenario which means application of co-generation sources, and especially renewable sources. Local co-generation sources shall bring measurable savings to the environment and economical to the heating companies. However, the choice of the source has to be done properly, with regard to the possibility of selling the thermal energy in the longest possible period during a year. And considerable stays the matter of fuel logistics as well as of co-operation with the local operator of power network. The boiler fired with biomass with turbo generator ORC is a modern proposal, economically justified, and perfectly signs in the class of small sources of local power. 

The works after project preparation and realization require a lot of determination, technical knowledge, and risk and at the same time, caution and organizational abilities. Only a few months have passed from closing the project financial process and starting its performance. Construction works aiming at new boiler house have finished. In March, the assembly of the biomass fired boiler as well as the accompanying devices has started, whereas in May, the assembly of ORC block shall start. Starting works of the renewable resource is planned at the turn of III/IV quarter of the current year, so that, the source could be entered in the heating and power industry network at the beginning of the heating period. n

Ostrowski Zakład Ciepłowniczy SA
63-400 Ostrów Wielkopolski
tel. (062) 735 86 00